MEKONG LIVESTOCK RESEARCH

Seeing clinical veterinary practice in Luang Prabang, Laos

Helen Law, Final year Veterinary Science Student, The University of Sydney

As part of my final year internship programme I was fortunate to complete a placement rotation within the livestock projects (ACIAR AH/2012/067 AH/2012/068) conducted by our Faculty in collaboration with the Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF) in Luang Prabang, Lao PDR. These projects are funded by the Australian Government through the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR) and my travel was supported by a successful application by the project leadership to the New Colombo Plan program. I attended this placement in October, 2016, with Brianna Smits, one of my close friends also completing the final year of the Bachelor of Veterinary Science at The University of Sydney.

Luang Prabang is a UNESCO protected city in the heart of Laos. It’s heritage buildings and lively main street full of cafes, restaurants and market stalls was a fabulous location to settle in and spend a month. Luang Prabang is located in a large valley surrounded by impressive mountains. During our stay here we spent time in the office at the Department of Livestock and Fisheries as well as out in the field, in the laboratory or at the SK Veterinary Clinic. This Luang Prabang clinic is possibly the only companion animal clinic outside of Vientianne Capital, as small animal clinics are rare in Laos and only have only recently emerged.

The SK Veterinary Clinic is located on one of the main roads in the town, just a short bicycle ride away from the DLF office. It is open from 9am until 7pm, 7 days a week. All of the clinics consultations are walk-ins and not by consultation appointment. The veterinarian is not always present during opening hours as throughout most of the day, they work at the DLF and are available to be called into the clinic by clients, plus spend their evenings at the clinic. Brianna and I spent a number of our evenings and some Saturday shifts with the clinicians at the SK clinic. This was an interesting, rewarding and challenging experience. The major challenge was the language barrier, making it especially difficult to obtain a thorough history. Kindly, the clinicians were more than happy to translate the history into English for us. It was interesting to compare the approach of clinics here to what we have seen in Australia, particularly regarding their lack of facilities. The limited diagnostics available made a thorough history and physical examination even more essential within each consultation. The clinic itself is quite small, consisting of one room with an attached bathroom/washing room. The main room acts as the waiting room, reception, treatment room, pharmacy, surgery and consult room, all rolled into one. It was impressive to see what could be achieved in such a small space.

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Figure 1: Brianna and I, on our first day at SK clinic, treating a dog with dehydration

External parasites presented frequently at the clinic, with subcutaneous injections of ivermectin given to multiple dogs that presented with tick infestations. Rhicephalus sanguineus is the most common tick found in South-East Asia. Ticks are capable of a carrying a vast range of disease, including some zoonotic tick borne diseases including Ehrlichiosis, Anaplasmoisis, Heptazoonoses, Babesiosis, Dirofilariasis and Bartonellosis. The stray dog population in Laos is a reservoir for ticks and other external parasites, and with the warm, humid climate, this provides the ideal ecosystem for the maintenance of a large tick population. Regular parasite prevention in small animals did not seem as common here as what we have observed in Australia. Preventatives against ticks and fleas, such as Nexguard and Bravecto, would be ideal products to introduce into the Laos market and maybe the SK clinic will begin to promote these to the expanding client base in the future.

The SK Veterinary Clinic offers surgical neutering services, although none occurred during our time at the clinic. Interestingly, we saw a female dog present for an injection with methylprogesterone as a method of chemical contraception rather than performing an ovariohysterectomy. The clinic promotes vaccinations against such as canine distemper, canine adenovirus 1 and 2, parvovirus, parainfluenza virus, with additional vaccinations against zoonotic diseases, including leptospirosis and rabies. Rabies vaccinations are offered free to animals on Saturday and Sunday and disease prevention is an important and growing aspect of the SK clinic activities.

Parvovirus runs rampant in Luang Prabang and throughout Laos with plenty of clients presenting their dogs to the clinic with a high suspicion of parvovirus infection. Whilst working at the clinic we observed and treated quite a few dogs with suspected parvovirus, with the lack of diagnostic work up due to minimal facilities and financial constraints causes most parvovirus cases to be diagnosed presumptively.

An example was a 4-5 month old male puppy presented to the clinic one Saturday morning after 4 days of lethargy, inappetance and diarrhoea. The clinician had seen the dog the day before and had given it supportive fluids. On physical examination the puppy was very lethargic with an elevated respiratory rate with increased effort. The puppy had a prolonged skin tent and tacky mucous membranes indicating dehydration. While on the examination table the puppy produced some watery, dark and foul smelling diarrhoea. At this point suspicion of parvovirus was very high. A catheter was placed and a total of 300mL of 5% dextrose fluids was administered intravenously throughout the day, the puppy was also administered intravenous metronidazole. The dog was also given a vitamin injection and enrofloxacin intramuscularly as well as an amoxycillin-clavulanic acid injection subcutaneously. The clinician made up an oral medication containing metronidazole, L-dacin suspension (aluminium hydroxide gel, aluminium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and simethicon) and a cephalexin solution. The puppy remained in the clinic on fluids and under observation for most of the day and was picked up in the afternoon, by which stage it was looking brighter. The clinic is not well equipped to deal with critical patients, particularly overnight so the puppy was sent home with oral medications and subcutaneous fluids and directions to keep the clinic updated and to return the dog to the clinic if it needed more fluids or deteriorated. The puppy recovered and enabled us to witness a particularly interesting case in comparison to our experiences in Australia.

Overall, working at the SK Veterinary Clinic in Luang Prabang was a rewarding and a fantastic learning experience. We have enjoyed our time here at the clinic and are looking forward to see what the future holds for the SK Veterinary Clinic!

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Figure 2: Parvo puppy receiving intravenous fluids

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Improving smallholder farmer livelihoods in Takeo Province, Cambodia

By Professor Peter Windsor
It is October 14th, 2016 and our MLR Australian team (Bush, Young, Ashley & Windsor) accompanied by some of our Cambodian collaborators (Phalaep and Vitou) just got back into Phnom Penh from a field visit to a farming village project site to the south of here, near Takeo in Takeo Province in rural Cambodia.  There we inspected the excellent progress our local collaborators have made in our research project, with clear evidence that the assistance provided by the project to smallholder farmers has been improving their livelihoods through enhanced livestock health and production. We have been working in Cambodia and Laos for a decade now, exploring our thesis that perhaps the best way to address rural poverty and food insecurity in developing countries, is by the introduction of mainly knowledge-based interventions that enable livestock ‘keepers to become producers’, enhancing their livelihoods (image 1).
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Image 1: A young girl feeds forages to her family’s cattle.
This enables a more sustainable and resilient family financial base, providing new and diversified income opportunities to support families sufficiently and stop the social decline due to poverty. This is particularly visible here in southern Cambodia, where males often depart their communities to work as labourers in other countries, and younger females are trucked into the garment factories near Phnom Penh (image 2), or alternative employment in less desirable jobs, to provide an income source for their families.
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Image 2: Young women being transported for employement
Although our ‘project entry point’ in Cambodia is provision of forage technology to improve cattle feeding, we are now assisting other livestock enterprises, particularly through control of diseases (e.g. vaccination of poultry and pigs). With cattle, we have begun examining a new approach here by improving cattle nutrition and parasite control through the use of molasses-urea blocks (image 3).
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Image 3: Our research in Laos includes trialing molasses-urea and anthelimintic treated blocks to control internal parasites
These blocks have great potential to help manage the severe dry season nutritional deficiencies and provide parasite management in countries where there are no facilities for treatment of large ruminants and livestock husbandry knowledge is generally low (see blog on their use in Laos).
It is now the wet season here when the forages flourish, but the prolonged dry season this year with several months delay in arrival of the monsoon, has seen less forage production this year and farmers are yet to commence making silage for the dry season. With farms are still recovering from drought, the blocks may prove to be a great help in the next dry season and in planning for future droughts, which appears to be an emerging regional issue possibly associated with increasing climate variability. However, in less drought-affected areas such as Tbong Khmum, farmers are busily working together to create silage stores for feeding cattle in the dry (image 4) and grass feed-lotting of cattle has begun to provide a more consistent animal with higher body condition scores to the emerging local and regional beef markets (image 5).
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Image 4: Farmers demonstrate to their peers how they chop and prepare forages for silage
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Image 5: Farmers are investing in feeding bunkers to feed forages to fatten cattle prior to sale to market.

Capturing the potential for smallholder beef production in northern Laos

Smallholder livestock owners in Laos traditionally keep cattle as a means of storing wealth and providing manure as organic fertiliser for cropping. However, this resource in recent years has been keenly sought by cattle traders supplying the rapidly expanding meat markets of south east Asia. Improving this resource by addressing the constraints to cattle health, production and marketing, is a major challenge as general livestock husbandry knowledge is low, as is livestock extension capacity of the mainly government provincial and district agricultural officers and the village-level village veterinary workers. However, improving the quality of their cattle herds offers an opportunity for smallholders to improve their livelihoods and potentially, the larger ‘cattle keepers’ and become early adopter smallholder ‘cattle producers’ by developing small to medium cattle production enterprises.

FullSizeRender(1)Photo 1: A new born calf in August 2016 in the northern Lao cattle herd of Mr Thong. Calves are usually born in the dry season in this and many herds when feed is short and cows struggle to feed their calves adequately. Calving at this time demonstrates the advantages of wet season calving during when feed is more plentiful and plantation forages are growing in abundance, provided good parasite control is achieved.

To address this opportunity, ACIAR are funding the project AH/2012/068 ‘Developing biosecure market-driven beef industry in Laos’, a research collaboration between The University of Sydney Faculty of Veterinary Science plus the Lao Department of Livestock and Fisheries, National Agricultural and Forestry Research Institute, National University of Laos and Savannakhet University. Recently, project co-leader Prof Peter Windsor and Dr Somevilay Nampanya from The University of Sydney, accompanied by Dr Mike Nunn, ACIAR Program Manager Animal Health and Mr Charles Olsson, proprietor of Australian stock feed company ‘4 Seasons Pty Ltd’ examined the cattle herd of Mr Thong of Ban Nou in Luang Prabang province.

FullSizeRender(3)Photo 2: This image is Dr Sonevilay Nampanya of The University of Sydney discussing cattle herd management plus forage plantations and the role of urea supplementation, with Mr Thong of Ban Nou near Luang Prabang. 

When previously visited in February this year, Mr Thong had 103 cattle including 70 cows, 12 calves and 21 bulls, with an average estimated condition score of 1.5/5 due to limited grazing availability. However, he had recently agreed to participate in a trial examining the use of molasses urea blocks medicated (MUMB) with the anthelmintic fenbendazole, donated by 4 Seasons. This trial is examining this convenient technology that may control the parasite Toxocara vitulorum, recently identified in 76% of northern Lao herds and considered the most severe pathogen of neonatal calves, causing mortality rates commonly observed as 50% of calves. A major difficulty with managing this parasite is the minimal knowledge of farmers about the need for parasite control and the lack of restraint facilities and skills to enable routine treatment of calves with anthelmintics.

FullSizeRender(2)Photo 3: Cows & calves eagerly consume urea molasses urea (UMB) for nitrogen supplementation, improving herd condition scores and assisting herd management as cows are easier to muster due to their interest in the blocks, plus it is a safe and convenient method to provide anthelmintic control of parasites as fenbendazole medicated blocks (MUMB’s).

At the visit in February, in addition to provision of MUMB’s, Mr Thong was also provided with advice on managing his herd structure and the planting of forages to better feed his cows, particularly in lactation. When revisited in August, Mr Thong had followed many of these recommendations and recently sold most of his bulls and less productive cows, reducing his herd to 62 cows, 2 bulls and now 20 calves. The average estimated condition score was now 2.5/5, and he was delighted that his cows were fatter, all had shiny coats, there were no ‘shy feeders’, and there was no evidence of external parasites, meaning he had decided not to treat them with the expensive ivermectin product that he usually used to try and control parasites. He noted that the calving had been extended and now had more calves than he expected, with no losses, plus all the calves appeared to be growing more quickly. Much of these improvements he attributed to the use of the MUMB’s and was keen to obtain more, particularly as at this stage as there was little evidence of improvement in the availability of feed from his young forage plantation.

IMG_6036(1)Photo 4: Dr Mike Nunn, Research Program Manager Animal Health ACIAR, negotiates a pathway through mud on the farm of Mr Thong, to examine cattle, MUMB feeding and recently planted forages, as part of project AH/2012/068.

Molasses urea blocks containing urea and bypass protein as a feed supplement for cows, is a commonly used technique used widely in tropical and subtropical cattle production in Australia. The ‘feeding the rumen’ provides the nitrogen required by cows to improve digestion of poor quality roughage, a major issue in the dry season in northern Australia and the Mekong, plus in many of the rice-growing areas of the Mekong where cattle are fed very low quality rice straw in the wet season due to the need to prevent them grazing rice paddies. The researchers consider the provisional data on improving the feed base with forages, supplemented with a safe source of urea in molasses blocks, is encouraging and could eventually prove to be transformational for Mekong cattle productivity. As the lick blocks can also provide a safe source of anthelmintics for control of parasitism in MUMB’s, the technology has considerable potential to improve the efficiency of cattle production by reduced calf mortality and improved growth rates, plus improve food security and reduce rural poverty by enhancing smallholder livelihoods in Mekong countries and beyond.

Australian veterinary students experience FMD control challenges in northern Laos

By Janet Nguyen (BVSc V student, University of Sydney, New Colombo Plan Scholarship recipient) – Janet traveled to Laos for 1 month to participate in the Australian Centre of International Agriculture Research (ACIAR) funded project aiming to enhance transboundary livestock disease management in Laos.

In late May 2016, Kate Sze-Kay Luk (also a final year veterinary student) and I embarked on a journey to Nan district, approximately one-hour drive from the popular tourist destination Luang Prabang in northern Laos. It was interesting seeing the steep inclines of utilised farmland which were noticeably unlike the flat plains I’m more used to in Australia. We arrived at a guesthouse which had basic facilities but I was thankful we were given a room and comfortable bed to rest in and the air conditioning was a bonus! In the afternoon we were invited to lunch with the Department of Livestock and Fisheries (DLF) staff members. Lunch was the now familiar bowl of Pho or Vietnamese noodles which provided a satisfying meal. In the evening we joined the DLF staff members again for a meal. The meal was novel to me and proved another delicious surprise. Dinner consisted of a bamboo basket of sticky rice and two dishes, both of which contained fish. The first bowl that arrived on our table was a soup dish and the second plate was laap, a somewhat spicy but refreshing dish with fish and various herbs. We were given a quick lesson on how the dishes were eaten; a handful of sticky rice was rolled into a ball which was used to scoop the accompanying dishes. Although we were new to this method of eating, we were happy to follow their example and enjoyed the new culinary experience!

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Photo: Kate Sze-Kay Luk (left) and Janet Nguyen (right) trying out some Lao cuisine!

The next day we embarked on a short walk to the first village with our DLF vaccination team. Each vaccination team consisted of four people and there were four teams in total. Each team carried with them an esky with bottles of vaccinations for haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) and foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) – both diseases are exotic to Australia – a box of needles and syringes and ear tags with applicators. We arrived at the Head of the village’s house and exchanged introductions and formalities.

 

I found it very interesting that both the ducks and chickens were free to roam around the front yard and scavenge food for themselves. Unlike the broilers in Australia, these birds were a lot leaner and more ambulatory as they did have have the same musculoskeletal issues seen in broilers in Australia. The husbandry practices and productions system in Lao PDR were completely different to Australia’s; in Laos poultry production is dominated by backyard systems which was a stark contrast to the commercialised systems in Australia. It was also apparent that veterinary services were limited especially in more rural areas. This made me ponder on the impact of infectious diseases. Although devastating, the impacts from major infectious diseases like Avian Influenza and Newcastle disease in backyard poultry would be quite different compared to in the commercial sector. The different production systems mean that approaches to biosecurity would need to be carefully implemented. It’s easy to imagine the impacts of a disease outbreak in a small rural village causing major implications on income loss for already poor families and human health.

 

Behind the Head of the village’s house there was a huge plot of land used for crops and animals. The first thing I noticed was the lack of a cattle crush for safe animal restraint. All the animals on this property were free to roam the area, however all of them had a rope which was a few metres long and attached to a noose around their necks and unlike in Australia, these animals were freely roaming unconfined by fences. I also noticed there was a lack of holding yards to gather the animals to a single location. Instead, the villagers would bring the animals up one-by-one by leading them on the free end of the rope. Using the length of the rope, a makeshift halter was made to help restrain the head while the animal was brought in closer to the tree. Once the animal was adequately restrained, a DLF staff member would approach the animal from the side and vaccinate the animal with the two vaccines. The first vaccination was the HS vaccine; this vaccine was administered subcutaneously in the lower part of the neck. The staff member positioned the beveled edge of the 18G needle almost parallel to the skin but slightly off the vertical. Each animal was given 3mL of the vaccine, administered on one side of the neck while 2mL of the FMD vaccination was given on the opposite side of the neck. The FMD vaccination was given intramuscularly below the vertebrae and higher up in the neck compared to the HS vaccination. I was quite surprised at how well tolerated this procedure was. The method of restraint here was something that was completely different to what I had been used to. In Australia, animals requiring a vaccination were moved into a crush or a race however here in Laos, only minimal restraint (of the head) was practiced. This presented safety concerns associated with this type of restraint, however the lack of facilities meant that this was unavoidable. I ensured I was out of harm’s way whenever possible by keeping a safe distance from the animal. The method of restraint did come across as a surprise to me initially however after vaccinating several animals I started to become more accustomed to the practice while remaining cautious. You make more effort to read the animal and watch its movements and demeanor. Along with the vaccination some animals also required an ear tag and this was predominantly done by a DLF staff member. It was a pleasure working alongside the villagers and learning more about their lifestyles. It was evident that in more rural areas livestock production is an important source of income and the initiatives to help safeguard this livelihood was evidently appreciated. After the morning vaccination session, we joined the Head of the village for a breakfast made by his wife and daughter. The display of food was quite interesting and I was taken aback by some of the exotic dishes. Like other Laotian dishes, sticky rice was offered and we helped ourselves to the chicken soup and spicy dishes. I was not attuned to spiciness of the dishes and although delicious I could not eat a lot of it. I was encouraged to try a delicacy consisting of fried grasshoppers and although curious, I was unable to overcome my distaste for insects. Following breakfast, we walked a kilometer up the road to another property to continue the vaccinations.

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Photo: The students participating in large0scale FMD vaccination campaigns in northern Laos.

The next day we moved onto a second village. Again, we met up with the Head of the village and had breakfast before venturing out into the field to vaccinate the animals. This particular village raised buffaloes which I anticipated would present more of a challenge to us than the domesticated cattle. However, surprisingly the buffaloes were very quiet and although quite intimidating to approach were calm and quite familiar with the sight of the villagers. Again, restraint of these animals were quite minimal. Unlike the cattle from yesterday, most of the buffaloes did not have a noose around their necks and so the villagers had to catch them first before bringing them in to a tree or post. The process was slow but quite effective. The noose was secured in a slit made into a bamboo stick and this was used as an extension of the villager’s arm to catch the animals. Once the animal was caught, the loose end of the rope was tethered to a secure post before the animal was brought in closer. The head was restrained with a figure-8-like configuration made with the length of the rope. The approach to vaccinating buffaloes was similar to cattle and similarly an ear tag was given when required. Comparatively, I found it was more difficult to vaccinate the buffaloes as the skin was thicker and the buffaloes’ horns were a lot larger which obscured the view of the neck and presented an additional safety hazard. The terrain here was also more steeply inclined than the previous village and with the wet weather, getting around was more difficult. Overall the experience of vaccinating buffaloes was rewarding as it allowed me to work with animals which was an experience I have not had before. It was insightful to discover the relationship the villagers had with the animals and this made me realise that livestock animals are very much ingrained into their livelihood of the village folk and are important sources of income and food security.

 

The rest of the week was not dissimilar to the events of the first two days. On the second-to-last day I had the opportunity to work with another DLF staff member who devised a method to better safely restrain the animals. A fairly large branch was planted firmly into the ground and secured to a sturdy tree at the free end; this apparatus would then serve as the head restraint once the animal was walked in between the tree and the branch. I thought this was very clever from a practicality and safety point of view as it meant the animal did not require as much handling. The animals also seemed to cope with this method a lot better and did not resist it as much.

 

Overall the experience was a rewarding one. I observed many differences in the practices here in Laos compared to those used with Australian livestock. It was great to become a part of this initiative to help prevent important diseases seen in livestock production and it definitely provided me with a new found awareness of the exotic disease threats in the country. The experience also highlighted the importance of veterinary attention. In light of the economic and development situation in Laos, it is not always possible for livestock to receive immediate veterinary attention due to costs and limited (but developing) veterinary services. It is evident that the vaccination programs (and other preventive focused interventions) are pertinent as these major infectious diseases not only affect the welfare of an animal in the event of an outbreak but there’s also the major impact on human lives both economically and socially. As well as increasing my awareness of how veterinary services can be implemented in a rural setting, the experience gave me an insight into the rich Lao culture. It was quite exciting and novel for me to interact with the local villagers and share meals with them. Although the language barrier made communication difficult, I could still appreciate their warm gestures and open generosity. I learned to appreciate the basic necessities of living and the connectedness of the community was quite endearing to see. In rural northern Laos, technology was quite limited, food was cooked over a fire and air conditioning and internet were considered luxuries which many could not afford. Showering facilities were limited; most villages washed themselves using a tub of water and the toilets were not flushable which may come across as a surprise to some. These experiences have culminated to provide a greater understanding of the culture and despite some of struggles I faced, I could still appreciate and respect the Lao culture. I felt that this trip was definitely an eye opener. The lessons I’ve learned about livestock production and the culture in Laos were numerous and enriching.

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Photo: Local Lao food delicacies!

 

Workshop on using Case Studies in advancing the Lao Veterinary Curriculum

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On April 27th, Russell Bush, Sonevilay Nampanya and Peter Windsor facilitated a ‘Workshop on using Case Studies in advancing the Lao Veterinary Curriculum’ at the Nabong campus of the National University of Laos, Faculty of Agriculture, near Vientiane capitol. The workshop was developed from a request by Faculty staff, following an ADB supported review of the curriculum conducted in 2014 by Peter Windsor, and the current curriculum development led by inputs from Russell Bush.
The workshop involved 11 Lao participants (one female) that were actively teaching in the relatively new BVSc curriculum (2 cohorts now graduated) but still delivering content by mainly didactic teaching. The role of case studies in encouraging active-learning was explained, and a simplified process of writing them, detailed. This included developing learning objectives, writing case scenarios, devising sequential question tasks, providing learning resources, advice on potential student presentations and assessment techniques, and finally a discussion of the expected learning outcomes.
Examples of student cases cases used in Sydney were presented, as were cases developed from MLR publications from Laos. The participants were then requested to develop a case study that would be suitable for their own units of study, and these were discussed. This workshop is particularly important for Laos as it is a great challenge for these mostly young and inexperienced staff to deliver a complete veterinary curriculum that is expects to resemble the OIE Model Vet Curriculum, with few staff and minimal resources.
Despite loss of electricity during the middle of a day of maximum heat (>40C), when both the Australian participants partially melted, the workshop was a great success. The workshop will hopefully assist the Faculty both ‘do more with less’, plus achieve improved student learning, particularly if a follow-up workshop can be organised on future visits to Laos by the MLR team.

Work of MLR shared with Indonesia

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On April 5th, Prof. Peter Windsor (6th from left) presented a talk on the work of the MLR team to a delegation of 9 high level Indonesian government officials on developments in our beef industries. His presentation and discussion was part of an extensive list of topics delivered at the MLA (Meat and Livestock Australia) offices in Sydney, with other days including integrated government-industry discussions and field visits in Brisbane and Darwin to illustrate applications of technical topics discussed in sessions. These ranged from NLIS (identification systems), beef processing and marketing, the live cattle trade, welfare and many more.The Indonesian group developed overall key learnings for Indonesia and Australia from the course, including next steps in advancing better practice in the livestock industries of Indonesia. Although the group was focusing more on the commercial beef sector, the MLR work with smallholders generated considerable discussion in several key areas, including forage growing, legume choices, silage production, beef processing systems, delivery of anthelmintics in molasses-urea blocks, anti-microbial use and food safety and animal welfare issues. Other University of Sydney staff involved in the MLA day included David Boyd (course coordinator), Jenny-Ann Toribio on epidemiology studies (4th from right) and Helen Scott-Orr (5th from right) who led the course.

On the 30th March Sonevilay submitted his PhD Thesis in Sydney! His PhD research topic: ‘Progressing smallholder large ruminant productivity and transboundary disease risk management for poverty reduction in Northern Lao PDR’ was submitted by publication and his list of peer-reviewed publications can be accessed here: http://sydney.edu.au/southeast-asia-centre/education/profiles/sonevilay-nampanya.shtml

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Photo: Sonevilay Nampanya (left) with supervisor Professor Peter Windsor at his submission on 30th March 2016.